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Official websites use. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites. Sexual violence remains a serious social problem with devastating consequences. However, resource scarcity within the criminal justice system continues to impede the battle against sexual violence. The challenge of "making society safer" not only includes the need for resources, but also requires a comprehensive understanding of accurate offense patterns and risk. This knowledge may be used to devise offense typologies, or classification systems, that will inform decisions regarding investigation, sentencing, treatment and supervision.
Although other typologies exist, this chapter only includes the classification systems that have been empirically derived and validated. The crossover offending section encompasses more than 25 years of research using different methodologies and populations. Although not considered a classification system due to the dynamic nature of the offense pathways, the self-regulation model SRM was reviewed due to its clinical utility and relationship to risk.
SRM has been validated using several offender populations and methodologies. Due to the limited scope of this chapter, this review focuses on adult sexual offenders, although some juvenile studies are included, where relevant. Most of these typologies imply that victimization i. Traditional typologies have been developed to provide a comprehensive understanding of deviant sexual behaviors required for treatment intervention and effective supervision.
However, classifying sexual offenders has been shown to be problematic. Sexual offenders exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, yet they present with similar clinical problems or criminogenic needs e. Overall, traditional typologies have demonstrated considerable problems, as indicated by inadequate definitions and inconsistent research findings. This section reviews the most frequently used and empirically tested sex offender typologies for child sexual abusers, rapists, female offenders and internet sexual offenders.
In this definition, coercion does not necessarily imply a direct threat. Child sexual abusers often develop a relationship with to manipulate him or her into compliance with the sexual act, which is perhaps the most damaging component of child sexual abuse John Jay College, Indeed, a defining feature of child sexual abuse is the offender's perception that the sexual relationship is mutual and acceptable Groth, Child sexual abusers have been difficult to classify as they vary in economic status, gender, marital status, ethnicity and sexual orientation.
Indeed, Whitaker et al. Child sexual abusers display deficits in information-processing skills and maintain cognitive distortions to deny the impact of their offenses e. With respect to affect, child sexual abusers assault to alleviate anxiety, loneliness and depression.
Not all individuals who sexually assault children are pedophiles. Pedophilia consists of a sexual preference for children that may or may not lead to child sexual abuse e. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition American Psychiatric Association, , a diagnosis of pedophilia requires an individual to have recurrent, intense and sexually arousing fantasies, urges or behaviors directed toward a prepubescent child generally 13 years of age or younger over a period of at least six months; to have acted on these urges or to be distressed by them; and to be at least 16 years old and at least five years older than the child victim.
The World Health Organization, which publishes the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems WHO, defines Pedophilia as a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal by an adult.
One of the first typologies was formulated from the delineation of pedophilic and nonpedophilic child sexual abuse. Groth, Hobson and Gary classified child sexual abusers based on the degree to which the sexual behavior is entrenched and the basis for psychological needs fixated-regressed typology. The fixated offender prefers interaction and identifies with children socially and sexually Simon et al. These individuals often develop and maintain relationships with children to satisfy their sexual needs Conte, In contrast, regressed child sexual abusers prefer social and sexual interaction with adults; their sexual involvement with children is situational and occurs as a result of life stresses Simon et al.
The fixated-regressed typology has been incorporated into the current models of sexual offending e. One study showed that male child sexual abusers who assault males are twice as likely to recidivate in comparison to offenders who abuse females Quinsey, Yet, contradictory findings have also been reported in the literature. Several studies found that child sexual abusers who sexually assault females report over twice as many victims as same-sex child offenders Abel et al. However, after controlling for of victims, mixed-gender offenders were not more likely to sexually recidivate compared to child sexual abusers who offend against males and females exclusively Stephens et al.
Overall, small sample sizes and reliance on official records have limited the extensive investigation of this group. Extrafamilial child sexual abusers are more likely to be diagnosed with pedophilia and are often unable to maintain adult relationships. Within this typology, child sexual abusers are also categorized based on their relationship to the victim i.
According to Rice and Harris , intrafamilial child sexual abusers i. Intrafamilial child sexual abusers are less likely to have antisocial tendencies e. Seto et al. Extrafamilial child sexual abusers are more likely to be diagnosed with pedophilia Seto et al. These studies relied primarily on official records i. Rapists differ from child sexual abusers in that they tend to be of lower socioeconomic status and are more likely to abuse substances and exhibit a personality disorder e. In addition, rapists often display the following criminogenic needs: intimacy deficits, negative peer influences, deficits in sexual and general self-regulation and offense-supportive attitudes e.
Rapists have been found to have a greater of violent convictions, and they tend to use greater levels of aggression and force than child sexual abusers Bard et al. Likewise, rapists are more likely to reoffend violently rather than sexually. Rapists have been shown to resemble violent offenders or criminals in general. Similar to violent offenders, Simon found that rapists displayed ificant diversity in their offense records in comparison to child sexual abusers and had committed equivalent proportions of drug-related offenses, thefts and burglaries.
Harris, Mazerolle and Knight suggest that rape can be explained by the general theory of crime. The majority of traditional rapist typologies have focused on the relationship to the victim, degree of aggression, motivation, sexual versus nonsexual nature of the assault and degree of control impulsive vs. Like child sexual abusers, rapists are often classified by their relationship to the victim i.
Seventy-three percent of rapists know their victims Bureau of Justice Statistics, Acquaintance rapists are characterized as coercive, less violent and less opportunistic than stranger rapists Bruinsma, In contrast, stranger rapists are more hostile and use more expressive violence i. Acquaintance rapists are less violent and opportunistic than stranger rapists, who are more hostile and use expressive violence. Rapists have also been classified based upon motivational characteristics.
Groth created a typology based upon the degree of aggression, the underlying motivation of the offender and the existence of other antisocial behaviors, which resulted in four types of rapists. The power-reassurance or sexual-aim rapist is characterized by feelings of inadequacy and poor social skills and does not inflict injury upon his victims National Center for Women and Policing, The violence used by the power-reassurance rapist is only sufficient to achieve the compliance of the victim or to complete the sexual act.
Such an individual may perceive that the victim has shown a sexual interest in him, or that by the use of force the victim will grow to like him Craissati, The power-assertive or antisocial rapist is impulsive, uses aggressive methods of control and abuses substances. His sexual assaults are often unplanned and he is unlikely to use a weapon Groth, The third type of rapist is the anger-retaliation or aggressive-aim rapist, who is motivated by power and aggression. This individual sexually assaults for retaliatory reasons and often degrades or humiliates the victim.
The fourth type is the sadistic rapist, who reenacts sexual fantasies involving torture or pain. Sexual sadism is defined as the repeated practice of cruel sexual behavior that is combined with fantasy and characterized by a desire to control the victim MacCullock et al. This type is characterized by extensive planning and may often result in sexual murder Groth, Characterized by Groth's anger-retaliation rapist, Ramirez, Jeglic and Calkins examined the relationship between pervasive anger and the use of physical and verbal aggression including use of a weapon during a sexual offense.
Additionally, the study compared child sexual abusers and rapists with respect to levels of expressive anger and use of violence during the commission of the crime. Records of offenders were reviewed and coded to assess anger using a pervasive anger measure and violence used during the sexual offense. Findings indicated rapists were rated as exhibiting more expressive anger than child sexual abusers.
Regardless of victim type, sexual offenders who used violence physical and verbal, but not a weapon during the sexual offense were evaluated as angrier than those who did not use violence. Taken together, findings provide support for Groth's conceptualization of the third type of rapist. Although inherently useful for research purposes, these traditional rapist typologies demonstrate little clinical utility because they exclude the irrational cognitions i.
Differences between male and female sexual offenders are identified in the literature. In contrast to male sexual offenders, female offenders are more likely to sexually assault males and strangers Allen, ; Vandiver, Female sexual offenders report different offense-supportive cognitions than males. For example, Cortoni and Hanson found a female sexual recidivism rate of 1 percent over a five-year average follow-up period with a sample of females. Yet the most evident distinction between male and female offenders is that female offenders are more likely to sexually assault with another person or group i.
In a sample of female sexual offenders, Vandiver found that 46 percent offended with another person and the majority of these co-perpetrators were male 71 percent , 62 percent offended with one individual and 38 percent offended within a group.
Females who take an active role in the abuse engage in direct sexual contact with the victim. Most of the typologies differentiate female offenders based on the presence of a co-offender, the age of the victim and the motivation for the offense.
Gillespie and colleagues found a greater prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction, substance abuse, depression, denial and involvement with known offenders among co-offending females. Prior to the offense, female offenders who sexually abuse alone exhibited a greater need for power or dominance, need for intimacy, negative mood state, extensive offense planning and abusive fantasies. Females who co-offend with a male i. These individuals are further differentiated based on the use of coercion by the accomplice.
These females have been shown to report a history of childhood sexual and physical abuse. Female offenders who sexually abuse alone i. These females exhibit dependency needs and often abuse substances. They are less likely to report severe child maltreatment; instead, their sexual abuse behaviors often result from a dysfunctional adult relationship and attachment deficits.
These female offenders report extensive physical and sexual abuse by caregivers. Researchers contend that they are often motivated by power i. Female offenders who engage in the exploitation or forced prostitution of other females have been reported to be motivated by financial gain and have higher of arrests for nonsexual crimes. Cortoni, Sandler and Freeman found females convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor tend to be younger at age of first conviction, have a greater history of incarceration and exhibit general criminality e.
Female offenders who themselves sexually assault other female adults often offend within an intimate relationship as a form of domestic violence i. They are motivated to assault out of anger, retaliation and jealousy. To reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the future, there remains a need for etiological research to provide an empirical basis for treatment interventions. Although these female typologies are useful to describe offense characteristics, they like the male typologies do not provide a theoretical framework for the etiology of sexual offending Logan, To reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the future, there remains a need for etiological research to provide an empirical basis for treatment interventions for female offenders.Adult want sex Newbury
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Chapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies