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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a moderate increase in protein intake on muscle strength, functional capacity and lean mass quality improvements in postmenopausal women following resistance exercise.
Muscle strength handgrip strength and one repetition maximum test—1-RM , functional capacity and lean mass LM quality muscle strength to lean mass ratio were evaluated. Dietary intake was assessed by nine 24 h food recalls. After intervention, both groups increased similarly the leg extension 1-RM and handgrip strength. Regarding functional capacity tests, both groups increased the balance test score SPPB and 10 m walk test speed, with no differences between the groups.
All these ificant changes had a low effect size. In conclusion, a moderate increase in protein intake promoted a small additional improvement in functional capacity, but it did not induce a greater increase in strength and LM quality after 10 weeks of resistance exercise in postmenopausal women. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials. Keywords: muscle strength; dietary intervention; muscle function; muscle mass quality muscle strength ; dietary intervention ; muscle function ; muscle mass quality. In addition, postmenopausal period in ovarian follicular activity loss and a reduction in estrogen production in women [ 6 ], which may promote additional effects on LM, strength and functional losses [ 7 , 8 ].
The reduction of muscle function can lead to difficulties in carrying out daily activities, weakness, higher risk of falls and a decrease in quality of life [ 9 , 10 ]. In addition to strength and functional capacity evaluation, LM quality strength to LM ratio [ 11 ] is another important parameter to be evaluated in this population, since it is a predictor of the risk of mobility limitation [ 12 , 13 ]. LM quality can be a complementary assessment to evaluate strength gains independently of muscle hypertrophy [ 1 ].
In this way, strength, functional capacity and LM quality are important parameters to be evaluated and interventions aiming to improve muscle function can increase the quality of life in older women [ 1 , 14 ]. Resistance exercise is a known intervention that promotes strength gains in adults [ 15 ], older adults [ 16 ] and postmenopausal women [ 17 , 18 ]. In addition, several studies have suggested that adequate protein intake can promote additional strength and functional capacity gains [ 19 , 20 ], although this is not a consensus [ 21 , 22 ].
A recent large-scale meta-analysis 49 studies with participants showed that increased protein intake by supplementation promoted additional strength gains induced by a prolonged resistance exercise protocol in trained individuals, but not in ly untrained subjects [ 20 ].
Evaluating older adults, Finger et al. The recommended dietary allowance RDA of protein intake for adults and older individuals, including postmenopausal women, is 0. However, it is not fully known the effects of a moderate increase of protein intake 0. For example, Isanejad et al. However, these associations seem to be indirect, since they were no longer ificant after controlling for fat mass. Tieland et al. However, due to the limited data in the literature, more studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of these protein recommendations.
Furthermore, it is still unknown whether a moderate increase in protein intake promotes improvements in strength and functional capacity in non-frail older women. However, since the lean mass gain does not seem to determine strength and functional capacity improvements [ 30 , 31 ], it is necessary to evaluate the effect of these protein recommendations on strength and functional capacity.
We hypothesized that a moderate increase in protein intake would promote additional strength, functional capacity and LM quality improvements induced by resistance exercise protocol. This clinical trial was a single-blind, randomized, parallel and prospective study, conducted at the Federal University of Uberlandia and at the Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Only postmenopausal women at least one year of cessation of mensuration; self reported , who did not perform resistance exercise in the last six months, who agreed to participate and ed the written consent form were included in the study.
In total, 48 women were initially recruited and one volunteer was excluded from the study. After the drop-out during the intervention, 12 volunteers were part of the NP group and 11 subjects in the HP group. Before the beginning of the study, anthropometric parameters, body composition, functional capacity tests, strength, LM quality, resting energy expenditure and dietary intake three food recall were assessed.
These evaluations were performed for two weeks. Additionally, the volunteers also performed an adaptation training period lasting two weeks, being the first week the familiarization period and the second week was performed one maximal repetition test 1-RM. These adaptation training sessions occurred three times a week, on non-consecutive days and, after this period, the resistance exercise protocol began. At the sixth week of resistance exercise, the load was adjusted to keep the relative load. Dietary intervention and resistance exercise protocol were performed for 10 weeks.
Dietary intake was assessed at the 5th and 6th weeks and at the 9th and 10th weeks, being applied six food recalls during the study. After 10 weeks intervention, anthropometric measurements, body composition, functional capacity tests, strength and LM quality were evaluated again.
The study protocol is described in Figure 2. Both measures were performed according to the protocol proposed by Lohman [ 32 ]. Body mass index BMI was calculated body mass in kilograms divided by squared height in meters. The volunteers were instructed to drink two liters of water to standardize the level of muscle hydration twenty-four hours before the evaluation, and were oriented to perform eight to 10 h fasting. The volunteers wore light and comfortable clothes without the presence of metal objects.
The equipment was used manually and all analyses were performed by the same researcher. A short physical performance battery SPPB [ 33 ] was composed by tests performed in the following order: Balance test, 4 m walk test and a five time sit-to-stand test. Each test score varied from 0 to 4 points and the total SPPB score varied from 0 to 12 points sum of the scores from the three tests. For the balance test, the individuals were asked to attempt to maintain their feet in the side-by-side, semi-tandem heel of one foot beside the big toe of the other foot , and tandem heel of one foot directly in front of the other foot positions for 10 s each.
The time that the volunteer remained balanced was recorded. The 4 m walk test was assessed by the time walked in a distance of 4 m at a habitual gait speed. Two measures go and come back were recorded and the shortest time was considered as the valid measure. Lastly, the five time sit-to-stand test, postmenopausal women were instructed to fold their arms across their chests and were evaluated on the time spent in five maximum velocity squats in a chair. The technique consisted of a full sit to stand position; the volunteer started seated and the time spent was recorded.
The 6 min walk test [ 34 ] was performed in an indoor sports court. The walking course was m long and it was marked every 3 m. A starting line, which marked the beginning and end of each m lap, was marked on the floor using brightly colored tape. All volunteers were advised to walk as fast as possible in the 6 min of the test. The distance was recorded after the volunteer completed the test. The m walk test [ 35 ] was performed in an indoor sports court.
The volunteer was instructed to walk m at a fast gait speed.Uberaba women body building sex
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